Resources

 

Ahmad, F. B., Rossen L. M., Spencer M. R., Warner M., Sutton P. (2018). Provisional drug overdose death counts. Hyattsville MD: National Center for Health Statistics. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/vsrr/drug-overdose-data.htm

Ahmadi, J., Jahromi, M. S., & Ehsaei, Z. (2018, August 29). The effectiveness of different singly administered high doses of buprenorphine in reducing suicidal ideation in acutely depressed people with co-morbid opiate dependence: A randomized, double-blind, clinical trial. Trials, 19(1): 462. doi: http://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-018-2843-9

American Association for the Treatment of Opioid Dependence, Inc. (n.d.). Frequently asked questions. Retrieved from http://www.aatod.org/resources/frequently-asked-questions/

American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, D.C.: Author.

Anderson, P. (2018). Opioid prevalence in suicide victims skyrockets. Medscape Medical News. Retrieved from https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/896334

Andrilla, C. H. A., Coulthard, C., & Larson, E. H. (2017). Barriers rural physicians face prescribing buprenorphine for opioid use disorder. Ann Fam Med, 15(4): 359-362. doi: https://doi.org/10.1370/afm.2099

APA Work Group on Psychiatric Evaluation (2016). Recommendations regarding assessment of suicide as part of the initial psychiatric assessment. The American Psychiatric Association Practice Guidelines for the Psychiatric Evaluation of Adults (3rd ed.). Arlington VA: American Psychiatric Association. Retrieved from http://psychiatryonline.org/doi/10.1176/appi.books.9780890426760.pe02#x27954.8322323

Bebinger, M. (2018, September 27). VA adding opioid antidote to defibrillator cabinets for quicker overdose response. National Public Radio. Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2018/09/27/650639122/va-adding-opioid-antidote-to-defibrillator-cabinets-for-quicker-overdose-respons

Becker, W. C., Fraenkel, L., Edelman, E. J., Holt S. R., Glover, J., Kerns, R. D., & Fiellin, D. A. (2013). Instruments to assess patient-reported safety, efficacy, or misuse of current opioid therapy for chronic pain: A systematic review. Pain, 154, 905-916. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2013.02.031

Blanco, C., Iza, M., Schwartz, R. P., Rafful, C., Wang, S., & Olfson, M. (2013). Probability and predictors of treatment-seeking for prescription opioid use disorders: A national study. Drug Alcohol Depend, 131(0), 143-148. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.12.013

Bohnert, K. M., Ilgen, M. A., Louzon, S., McCarthy, J. F., & Katz, I.R. (2017). Substance use disorders and the risk of suicide mortality among men and women in the US Veterans Health Administration. Addiction, 112(7), 1193-1201. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/add.13774

Braden, J. B., Edlund, M. J., & Sullivan, M. D. Suicide deaths with opioid poisoning in the United States: 1999-2014. Am J Public Health, 107, 421-426. doi: https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2016.303591

Brent DA, Hur K, Gibbons RD. Association Between Parental Medical Claims for Opioid Prescriptions and Risk of Suicide Attempt by Their Children. JAMA Psychiatry. Published online May 22, 2019. doi: https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2019.0940

Butler, S. F., Budman, S. H., Famciullo, J., & Jamison, R. N. (2011). Cross validation of the current opioid misuse measure to monitor chronic pain patients on opioid therapy. Clin J Pain, 26(9), 770-776. doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/AJP.0b013e3181f195ba

Butler, S. F., Budman, S. H., Fernandez, K. C., Houle, B., Benoit, C., Katz, N., & Jamison, R. (2007). Development and validation of the current opioid misuse measure. Pain, 130(1-2), 144-156. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2007.01.014

Butler, S. F., Fernandez, K., Benoit, C., Budman, S. H., & Jamison, R. N. (2008). Validation of the revised screener and opioid assessment for patients with pain (SOAPP-R). J Pain, 9(4), 360-372. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2007.11.014

Caupp, S., Steffan, J., Shi, J., Wheeler, K. K., Spiller, H. A., Casavant, M. J., & Xiang, H. (2018, August). Opioid drug poisonings in Ohio adolescents and young adults, 2002-2014. Clin Toxicol (Phila), 56(8): 765-772. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2018.1424889

CDC National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (2018). Annual surveillance report of drug-related risks and outcomes. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/drugoverdose/pdf/pubs/2018-cdc-drug-surveillance-report.pdf

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (n.d.). Guidelines for prescribing opioids for chronic pain. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/drugoverdose/pdf/Guidelines_Factsheet-a.pdf

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Synthetic opioid overdose data. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/drugoverdose/data/fentanyl.html

Chan, E. .Y. L., McDonald, B. M., Brooks-Lim, E., Jones, G. R., Klein, K. B. & Svenson, L. W. (2018, September). At-a-glance – The role of opioid toxicity in suicide deaths in Alberta, 2000 to 2016. Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can, 38(9): 343-347. doi: https://doi.org/10.24095/hpcdp.38.9.07

Cheatle, M. D. (2011). Depression, chronic pain, and suicide by overdose: On the edge. Pain Med, 12(Suppl. 2), S43-S48. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-4637.2011.01131.x

Cheatle, M. D. (2015). Prescription opioid misuse, abuse, morbidity, and mortality: Balancing effective pain management and safety. Pain Med, 16(Suppl. 1), S3-S8. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/pme.12904

Chou, R., Fanciullo, G. J., Fine, P. G., Adler, J. A., Ballantyne, J. C., Davies, P., . . . Miaskowski, C. & the American Pain Society-American Academy of Pain Medicine Opioids Guidelines Panel (2009, February 2). Clinical guidelines for the use of chronic opioid therapy in chronic noncancer pain. J Pain, 10(2), 113-130. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2008.10.008

The Columbia Lighthouse Project (2016). The Columbia Lighthouse Project: Identify risk. Prevent suicide. Retrieved from http://cssrs.columbia.edu

Committee on Education and the Workforce (2017, November 3). Close to home: How opioids are impacting families, jobs, communities, and the economy. E & W Blog. Retrieved from https://edworkforce.house.gov/news/documentsingle.aspx?DocumentID=402081

Conner, K. R., Britton, P. C., Sworts, L. M., & Joiner Jr., T. E. (2007). Suicide attempts among individuals with opiate dependence: The critical role of belonging. Addict Behav, 32(7): 1395-1404. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2006.09.012

Crawford, C. (2017, August 11). Overcoming barriers to opioid treatment takes center stage. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/news/health-of-the-public/20170811opioidsstudy.html

Curtin, S. C., Tejada-Vera, B., Warner, M. (2017, August). Drug overdose deaths among adolescents aged 15-19 in the United States: 1999-2015. NCHS Data Brief, no. 282. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db294.pdf

Darke, S. & Ross, J. (2002). Suicide among heroin users: rates, risk factors, and methods. Addiction, 97(11): 1383-1394. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/8454/eb1f8a25763298ae16347504e603659e5708.pdf

Darke, S., Ross, J., Williamson, A., Mills, K. L., Havard, A., & Teesson, M. (2007). Patterns and correlates of attempted suicide by heroin users over a 3-year period: Findings from the Australian Treatment Outcome Study. Drug Alcohol Depend, 87(2-3): 146-152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2006.08.010

Dazzi, T., Gribble, R., Wessely, S., Fear, N. T. (2014, December). Does asking about suicide and related behaviours induce suicidal ideation? What is the evidence? Psychol Med, 44(16): 3361-3. doi: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291714001299

Dunn, K. E., Barrett, F. S., Fingerhood, M., Bigelow, G. E. (2017, August 1). Opioid overdose history, risk behaviors, and knowledge in patients taking prescribed opioids for chronic pain. Pain Med, 18(8): 1505-1515. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/pm/pnw228

Dutra, L., Stathopoloulou, G., Basden, S. L., Levro, T. M., Powers, M. B., & Otto, M. W. (2008). A meta-analytic review of psychosocial interventions for substance use disorders. Am J Psychiatry, 165(2): 179-87. doi: https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2007.06111851

Eilender, P., Ketchen, B., Maremmani, I., Saenger, M., & Fareed, A. (2016). Treatment approaches for patients with opioid use disorder and chronic noncancer pain: A literature review. Addictive Disorders & Their Treatment, 15(2), 85-97. doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/ADT.0000000000000078

Fleming, A. R. (2018, July 3). Opioids’ other victims: Family members suffer collateral damage as they witness loved ones’ struggles with addiction. The Washington Post, pp. E3, E6.

Ford, J. A., & Rigg, K. K. (2015). Racial/ethnic differences in factors that place adolescents at risk for prescription opioid misuse. Prevention Science: The Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research, 16(5), 633-641. doi: http://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-014-0514-y

Friedan, J. (2018, December 20). HHS recommends co-prescribing naloxone with opioids. Medpage Today. Retrieved from https://www.medpagetoday.com/psychiatry/opioids/77062

Gaither, J. R., Shabanova, V., & Leventhal, J. M. (2018, December 28). US national trends in pediatric deaths from prescription and illicit opioids, 1999-2016. JAMA Netw Open, 1(8):e186558. doi: https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.6558

Gee, G. C., Delva, J., & Takeuchi, D. T. (2007). Relationships between self-reported unfair treatment and prescription medication use, illicit drug use, and alcohol dependence among Filipino Americans. American Journal of Public Health, 97(5): 933-940. doi: http://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2005.075739

Gibson, A., Degenhardt, L., Mattick, R. P., Ali, R., White, J., & O’Brien, S. (2008). Exposure to opioid maintenance treatment reduces long-term mortality. Addiction, 103, 462-468. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2007.02090.x

Griesler, P. C., Hu, M., Wall, M. M., & Kandel, D. B. (2019). Nonmedical prescription opioid use by parents and adolescents in the US. Pediatrics, 143(3): e20182354. doi: https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2018-2354

Guy GP Jr., Haegerich TM, Evans ME, Losby JL, Young R, Jones CM. Vital Signs: Pharmacy-Based Naloxone Dispensing — United States, 2012–2018. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. ePub: 6 August 2019. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6831e1

Haight, S. C., Ko, J. Y., Tong, V. T., Bohm, M. K., & Callaghan, W. M. (2018, August 10). Opioid use disorder documented at delivery hospitalization—United States, 1999-2014. Morb and Mort Wkly Rep, 67(31): 845-849. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6731a1

Humeniuk, R. E., Ali, R. A., Babor, T. F., Farrell, M., Formigoni, M. L., Jittiwutikarn, J., . . . Simon, S. (2008). Validation of the Alcohol Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST). Addiction, 103(6), 1039-1047. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2007.02114.x

Ilgen, M. A., Bohnert, A. S., Ganoczy, D., Bair, M. J., McCarthy, J. F., & Blow, F. C. (2016). Opioid dose and risk of suicide. Pain, 157(5), 1079-1084. doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000484

Ilgen, M. A., Kleinberg, F., Ignacio, R. V., Bohnert, A. S., Valenstein, M., McCarthy, J. F., Blow, F. C., & Katz, I. R. (2013). Noncancer pain conditions and risk of suicide. JAMA Psychiatry, 70(7): 692-697. doi: https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.908

Jacobs, D. G., Baldessarini, R. J., Conwell, Y., Fawcett, J. A., Horton, L., Meltzer, H., Pfeffer, C. R., & Simon, R. I (2003). Practice guideline for the assessment and treatment of patients with suicidal behaviors. Retrieved from http://psychiatryonline.org/pb/assets/raw/sitewide/practice_guidelines/guidelines/suicide.pdf

Johnson, E. M., Lanier, W. A., Merrill, R. M., Crook, J., Porucznik, C. A., Rolfs, R. T., & Sauer, B. (2013). Unintentional prescription opioid-related overdose deaths: Description of decedents by next of kin or best contact, Utah, 2008-2009. J Gen Intern Med, 28, 522-529. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-012-2225-z

Kane, J. M., Colvin, J. D., Bartlett, A. H., & Hall, M. (2018). Opioid-related critical care resource use in US children’s hospitals. Pediatrics, 141(4). doi: https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2017-3335

Kaye, A. D., Jones, M. R., Kaye, A. M., Ripoll, J. G., Galan, V., Beakley, B. D., . . . Manchikanti, L. (2017) Prescription opioid abuse in chronic pain: An updated review of opioid abuse predictors and strategies to curb opioid abuse: Part 1. Pain Physician, 20(Suppl. 2), S93-S109.

Kerridge, B. T., Saha, T. D., Chou, S. P., Zhang, H., Jung, J., Ruan, W. J., . . . Hasin, D. S. (2015). Gender and nonmedical prescription opioid use and DSM-5 nonmedical prescription opioid use disorder: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions – III. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 156, 47-56. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.08.026

Kiang M. V., Basu S., Chen J., Alexander M. J. (2019). Assessment of changes in the geographical distribution of opioid-related mortality across the United States by opioid type, 1999-2016. JAMA Netw Open, 2(2):e190040. doi: https://10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.0040

Knudsen, H. K., Abraham, A. J., Roman, P. M. (2011). Adoption and implementation of medications in addiction treatment programs. J Addict Med, 5(1): 21-27. doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/ADM.0b013e3181d41ddb

Kuramoto, S. J., Chilcoat, H. D., Ko, J., & Martins, S. S. (2012, March). Suicidal ideation and suicide attempt across stages of nonmedical prescription opioid use and presence of prescription opioid disorders among U.S. adults. J Stud Alcohol Drugs, 73(2): 178-84. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3281977/

Laff, M. (2017, July 7). Medicaid is crucial lifeline for addiction treatment, say panelists. Washington, D.C.: American Academy of Family Physicians. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/news/health-of-the-public/20170707opioidsummit.html

Lembke, A. & Chen, J. H. (2016, September 1). Use of opioid agonist therapy for Medicare patients in 2013. JAMA Psychiatry, 73(9),990-2. doi: https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2016.1390

Lee, J. D., Friedmann, P. D., Kinlock, T. W., Nunes, E. V., Boney, T. Y., Hoskinson, R. A., . . . , & O’Brien, C. P. (2016). Extended-release naltrexone to prevent opioid relapse in criminal justice offenders. New Engl J Med, 374: 1232-1242. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1505409

Lieber, M. (2018, March 5). Opioid overdose among children nearly doubles, study says. CNN. Retrieved from https://www.cnn.com/2018/03/05/health/opioid-overdose-children-doubles-study/index.html

Lyles, A. (2018). Autopsy recharacterizes many cardiac arrest-deaths – Autopsy revised cause of death for nearly half, with many hidden overdoses. Medpage Today. Retrieved from https://www.medpagetoday.com/cardiology/arrhythmias/73605

Mack, K. A., Jones, C. M., & Ballesteros, M. F. (2017). Illicit drug use, illicit drug use disorders, and drug overdose deaths in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas – United States. MMWR Surveill Summ, 66, 1-12. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.ss6619a1

Madadi, P., Hildebrandt, D., Lauwers, A. E., & Koren, G. (2013, April 5). Characteristics of opioid-users whose death was related to opioid-toxicity: A population-based study in Ontario, Canada. PLOS ONE, 8(4): e60600. doi: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0060600

Maloney, E., Degenhardt, L. Darke, S., & Nelson, E. (2009). Are non-fatal opioid overdoses misclassified suicide attempts? Comparing the associated correlates. Addict Behav, 34(9): 723-729. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2009.04.011

Marchand, K., Palis, H., Fikowski, J., Harrison, S., Spittal, P., Schechter, M. T., & Oviedo-Joekes, E. (2017). The role of gender in suicidal ideation among long-term opioid users. Can J Psychiatry, 62(7): 465-472. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/0706743717711173

McCaffrey, S. A., Black, R. A., Villapiano, A. J., Jamison, R. N., & Butler, S. F. (2017). Development of a brief version of the Current Opioid Misuse Measure (COMM): The COMM-9. Pain Medicine, 0, 1-6. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/pm/pnx311

McCall, J., Brusoski, M., & Rosen, D. (2017). Research with older adult methadone clients: The importance of monitoring suicide ideation. J Gerontol Soc Work, 60(6-7): 458-470/ doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/01634372.2017.1328479

Meltzer, E. C., Rybin, D., Saitz, R., Samet, J. H., Schwartz, S. L., Butler, S. F., Liebschutz, J. M. (2011). Identifying prescription opioid use disorder in primary care: Diagnostic characteristics of the Current Opioid Misuse Measure (COMM). Pain, 152(2), 397-402. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2010.11.006

Mundt, J. C., Greist, J. H., Jefferson, J. W., Federico, M., Mann, J. J., Posner, K. (2013, September). Prediction of suicidal behavior in clinical research by lifetime suicidal ideation and behavior ascertained by the electronic Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale. J Clin Psychiatry, 74(9), 887-93. doi: https://doi.org/10.4088/jcp.13m08398

NIDA (2012, March 1). Resource guide: Screening for drug use in general medical settings.  Retrieved from https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/resource-guide-screening-drug-use-in-general-medical-settings

NIDA (2017, March 30). Naloxone for opioid overdose: Life-saving science. Retrieved from https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/naloxone-opioid-overdose-life-saving-science/naloxone-opioid-overdose-life-saving-science

NIDA (2018a, June 7). Heroin. Retrieved from https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/heroin

NIDA (2018b, June). Medications to treat opioid use disorder. Retrieved from https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/medications-to-treat-opioid-addiction/overview

NIDA (2018c, April). Opioid overdose reversal with naloxone. Retrieved from https://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topics/opioid-overdose-reversal-naloxone-narcan-evzio

NIDA (2018d, Aug). Overdose death rates. Retrieved from https://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topics/trends-statistics/overdose-death-rates

NIDA (2018e, June 7). Prescription opioids. Retrieved from https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/prescription-opioids

NIDA (2018f, June). What is the scope of heroin use in the United States? Retrieved from https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/heroin/scope-heroin-use-in-united-states

Olson, Y. & Sharfstein, J. M. (2014).  Confronting the stigma of opioid use disorder-and its treatment. JAMA, 311(14), 1393-1394. doi: https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2014.2147

Oquendo, M. A. & Volkow, N. D. (2018). Suicide: A silent contributor to opioid-overdose deaths. The New England Journal of Medicine, 378(17), 1567-1569. doi: https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp1801417 

Peahl AF, Dalton VK, Montgomery JR, Lai Y, Hu HM, Waljee JF. Rates of New Persistent Opioid Use After Vaginal or Cesarean Birth Among US Women. JAMA Netw Open. Published online July 26, 20192(7):e197863. doi: http://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.7863

Posner, K., Brent, D., Gould, M., Stanley, B., Brown G., Fisher, P., . . . Mann, J. (2008a). Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS): Screen version. Retrieved from http://cssrs.columbia.edu/the-columbia-scale-c-ssrs/cssrs-for-research/

Posner, K., Brent, D., Gould, M., Stanley, B., Brown G., Fisher, P., . . . Mann, J. (2008b). Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS). Retrieved from http://cssrs.columbia.edu/the-columbia-scale-c-ssrs/cssrs-for-research/

Posner, K., Brown, G. K., Stanley, B., Brent, D. A., Yershova, K. V., Oquendo, M. A., . . . Mann, J. J. (2011, December) The Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale: Initial validity and internal consistency findings from three multisite studies with adolescents and adults. Am J Psychiatry, 168(12), 1266-1277. doi: https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2011.10111704

Quinn, P.D., Hur, K., Chang, Z., Krebs, E. E., Bair, M. J., Scott, E. L., . . . , & D’Onofrio, B. M. (2017, January). Incident and long-term opioid therapy among patients with psychiatric conditions and medications: A national study of commercial health care claims. Pain, 158(1): 140-148. doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000730

Ravitz, J. (2018, December 28). Opioids are killing more children and teens, too, study says. CNN. Retrieved from https://www.cnn.com/2018/12/28/health/pediatric-opioid-deaths-study/index.html

Richmond, L. (2018, January 31). FDA promotes MAT coverage, new treatments for OUD. Psychiatric News. Retrieved from https://psychnews.psychiatryonline.org/doi/full/10.1176/appi.pn.2018.1b7

Robeznieks, A. (2018, June 14). AMA: Remove barriers to opioid-use disorder treatment. Retrieved from https://www.ama-assn.org/delivering-care/opioids/ama-remove-barriers-opioid-use-disorder-treatment

Robins, E. (1981). The final months. New York: Oxford University Press.

Rudd, R. A., Aleshire, N., Zibbell, E., & Gladden, R. M. (2016). Increases in drug and opioid overdose deaths – United States, 2000-2014. American Journal of Transplantation, 16, 1323-1327. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/ajt.13776

Saha, T. D., Kerridge, B. T., Goldstein, R. B., Chou, P., Zhang, H., Jung, J., . . . Grant BF (2016). Nonmedical prescription opioid use and DSM-5 nonmedical prescription opioid use disorder in the United States. J Clin Psychiatry, 77(6), 772-780. doi: https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.15m10386

Sandoe, E., Fry, C. E., Frank, R. G. (2018). Policy levers that states can use to improve opioid addiction treatment and address the opioid epidemic. Health Affairs Blog, doi: https://doi.org/10.1377/hblog20180927.51221

Sajid, A., Whiteman, A., Bell, R. L., Greene, M. S., Engleman, E. A., & Chambers, A. (2016). Prescription drug monitoring program data tracking of opioid addiction treatment outcomes in integrated dual diagnosis care involving injectable naltrexone. The American Journal on Addictions, 25, 557-564. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/ajad.12441

Scholl, L., Seth, P., Kariisa, M., Wilson, N., & Baldwin, G. (2019, January 4). Drug and opioid-involved overdose deaths—United States, 2013–2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 67: 1419–1427. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm675152e1

Serafini, G., Adavastro, G., Canepa, G., De Berardis, D., Valchera, A., Pompili, M., Nasrallah, H. & Amore, M. (2018, August 15). The efficacy of buprenorphine in major depression, treatment-resistant depression and suicidal behavior: A systematic review. Int J Mol Sci, 19(8): e2410. doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19082410

Seth, P., Scholl, L., Rudd, R. A., & Bacon S. (2018, March 30). Overdose deaths involving opioids, cocaine, and psychostimulants—United States, 2015-2016. Morb and Mort Wkly Rep, 67(12): 349-358. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6712a1

Silverman, J. J., Galanter, M., Jackson-Triche, M., Jacobs, D. G., Lomax, J. W., Riba, M. B., . . . Yager, Joel & American Psychiatric Association (2015). The American Psychiatric Association practice guidelines for the psychiatric evaluation of adults. Am J Psychiatry, 172(8): 798-802. doi: https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2015.1720501

Sinyor, M., Howlett, A., Cheung, A. H., & Schaffer, A. (2012, March 1). Substances used in completed suicide by overdose in Toronto: An observational study of coroner’s data. Can J Psychiatry, 57(3): 184-91. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/070674371205700308

Stone, D. M., Holland, K. M., Bartholow, B., Logan, J. E., McIntosh, W. L., Trudeau, A., & Rocket, I. (2017). Deciphering suicide and other manners of death associated with drug intoxication: A Centers for Disease Control and Prevention consultation meeting summary. Am J Public Health, 107: 1233-1239. doi: https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2017.303863

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (n.d.). Reports and detailed tables from the 2017 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Retrieved from https://www.samhsa.gov/data/nsduh/reports-detailed-tables-2017-NSDUH

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (2012). Alcohol and drug addiction happens in the best of families…and it hurts. Retrieved from https://store.samhsa.gov/product/Alcohol-and-Drug-Addiction-Happens-in-the-Best-of-Families/SMA12-4159

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (2013). Family therapy can help: For people in recovery from mental illness or addiction. Retrieved from https://store.samhsa.gov/product/Family-Therapy-Can-Help-For-People-in-Recovery-From-Mental-Illness-or-Addiction/SMA15-4784

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (2016). Preventing prescription drug misuse: Understanding who is at risk. Retrieved from https://www.samhsa.gov/capt/tools-learning-resources/preventing-prescription-drug-misuse-understanding-who-risk

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (2017). Key substance use and mental health indicators in the United States: Results from the 2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Retrieved from https://www.samhsa.gov/data/

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (2018, June 13). Treatment for substance use disorders. Retrieved from https://www.samhsa.gov/treatment/substance-use-disorders

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of the Surgeon General (2016). Facing addiction in America: The Surgeon General’s report on alcohol, drugs, and health. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK424848/

Substance Abuse Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality (2017, September 7). Results from the 2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Detailed tables. Retrieved from https://samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/NSDUH-DetTabs-2016/NSDUH-DetTabs-2016.htm

Sullivan, A. (2018, February 19). The poison we pick. New York Magazine. Retrieved from http://nymag.com/intelligencer/2018/02/americas-opioid-epidemic.html

Tracy, K., & Wallace, S. P. (2016). Benefits of peer support groups in the treatment of addiction. Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation, 7, 143–154. doi: http://doi.org/10.2147/SAR.S81535

Timko, C., Schultz, N. R., Cucciare, M. A., Vittorio, L., Garrison-Diehn, C (2016). Retention in medication-assisted treatment for opiate dependence: A systematic review. J Addict Dis, 35(1): 22-35. doi: https://10.1080/10550887.2016.1100960

Tseng, Z. H., Olgin, J. E., Vittinghoff, E., Ursell, P. C., Kim, A. S., Sporer, K., . . . Moffatt, E. (2018). Prospective countrywide surveillance and autopsy characterization of sudden cardiac death POST SCD study. Circulation, 137(25), 2689-2700. doi: https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.117.033427

Turk, D. C., Swanson, K. S., & Gatchel, R. J. (2008). Predicting opioid misuse by chronic pain patients: A systematic review and literature synthesis. Clin J Pain, 24(6), 497-508. doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/AJP.0b013e31816b1070

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (n.d.). Naloxone: The opioid reversal drug that saves lives: How healthcare providers and patients can better utilize this life-saving drug. Retrieved from https://www.hhs.gov/opioids/sites/default/files/2018-12/naloxone-coprescribing-guidance.pdf

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2018a, September 14). SAMHSA’s Annual Mental Health, Substance Use Data Provide Roadmap for Future Action. Retrieved from https://www.hhs.gov/about/news/2018/09/14/samhsa-annual-mental-health-substance-use-data-provide-roadmap-for-future-action.html

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2018b, December 19). HHS recommends prescribing or co-prescribing naloxone for an opioid overdose. Retrieved from https://www.hhs.gov/about/news/2018/12/19/hhs-recommends-prescribing-or-co-prescribing-naloxone-to-patients-at-high-risk-for-an-opioid-overdose.html

U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (2016, July). Opioid Overdose Education and Naloxone Distribution (OEND) program: Quick reference fact sheet. Retrieved from https://www.pbm.va.gov/PBM/AcademicDetailingService/Documents/OEND_Fact_Sheet.pdf

U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2018). FDA clears mobile medical app to help those with opioid use disorder stay in recovery programs. Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm628091.htm

VanHouten J. P., Rudd R. A., Ballesteros M. F., & Mack K. A. (2019). Drug overdose deaths among women aged 30–64 years — United States, 1999–2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 68: 1–5. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6801a1

Vingoe, L., Welch, S., Farrell, M., & Strang, J. (1999). Heroin overdose among a treatment sample of injecting drug misusers: Accident or suicidal behavior? J Subst Use, 4(2): 88-91. https://doi.org/10.3109/14659899909053019

Voon, P., Karamouzian, M., & Kerr, T. (2017). Chronic pain and opioid misuse: A review of reviews. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, 12(36). doi: https://doi.org/10/1186/s13011-017-0120-7

Wilcox, H. C., Conner, K. R., & Caine, E. D. (2004). Association of alcohol and drug use disorders and completed suicide: An empirical review of cohort studies. Drug Alcohol Depend, 76: S11-19. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2004.08.003

Williams, S. C. & Devooght, K. (2017, June 2). 5 things to know about the opioid epidemic and its effect on children. Child Trends 5. Retrieved from https://www.childtrends.org/child-trends-5/5-things-know-opioid-epidemic-effect-children

WHO ASSIST Working Group (2002). The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST): Development, reliability and feasibility. Addiction, 97(9), 1183-1194. doi: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1360-0443.2002.00185.x

World Health Organization (2008). Management of Substance Abuse: The WHO ASSIST project. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/substance_abuse/activities/assist_factsheet_june2006.pdf?ua=1

Wu, L., Zhua, H., & Swartz, M.S. (2016). Treatment utilization among persons with opioid use disorder in the United States. Drug Alcohol Depend, 169, 117–127. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2016.10.015